Normalization is the process of organizing a database to reduce redundancy and improve data integrity.
Normalization also simplifies the database design so that it achieves the optimal structure composed of atomic elements (i.e. elements that cannot be broken down into smaller parts).
Also referred to as database normalization or data normalization, normalization is an important part of relational database design, as it helps with the speed, accuracy, and efficiency of the database.
The Third Manifesto is a detailed proposal for the future direction of data and database management systems (DBMSs).
Written by C.J. Date and Hugh Darwen, The Third Manifesto can be viewed as a blueprint for the design of future DBMSs, as well as any language designed to interface with them.
Codd’s 12 rules is a set of rules that a database management system (DBMS) must satisfy if it’s to be considered relational (i.e. a relational DBMS).
The rules were proposed by Edgar F. Codd, who is considered a pioneer of the relational database model.
Codd’s 12 rules is actually a set of thirteen rules, numbered from zero to twelve. The twelve rules are based on a single foundation rule — Rule Zero.