This article lists the SQL UPDATE syntax, as implemented by various database management systems (DBMSs). The syntax is listed exactly as each vendor has listed it on their website. Click on the applicable link to view more detail about the syntax for a particular vendor.

The DBMSs covered are MySQL, SQL Server, PostgreSQL, and Oracle Database.

MySQL

From the MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual.

Single-table syntax:

UPDATE [LOW_PRIORITY] [IGNORE] table_reference
    SET col_name1={expr1|DEFAULT} [, col_name2={expr2|DEFAULT}] ...
    [WHERE where_condition]
    [ORDER BY ...]
    [LIMIT row_count]

Multiple-table syntax:

UPDATE [LOW_PRIORITY] [IGNORE] table_references
    SET col_name1={expr1|DEFAULT} [, col_name2={expr2|DEFAULT}] ...
    [WHERE where_condition]

SQL Server

From the Transact-SQL Reference:

[ WITH <common_table_expression> [...n] ]
UPDATE 
    [ TOP ( expression ) [ PERCENT ] ] 
    { { table_alias | <object> | rowset_function_limited 
         [ WITH ( <Table_Hint_Limited> [ ...n ] ) ]
      }
      | @table_variable    
    }
    SET
        { column_name = { expression | DEFAULT | NULL }
          | { udt_column_name.{ { property_name = expression
                                | field_name = expression }
                                | method_name ( argument [ ,...n ] )
                              }
          }
          | column_name { .WRITE ( expression , @Offset , @Length ) }
          | @variable = expression
          | @variable = column = expression
          | column_name { += | -= | *= | /= | %= | &= | ^= | |= } expression
          | @variable { += | -= | *= | /= | %= | &= | ^= | |= } expression
          | @variable = column { += | -= | *= | /= | %= | &= | ^= | |= } expression
        } [ ,...n ] 

    [ <OUTPUT Clause> ]
    [ FROM{ <table_source> } [ ,...n ] ] 
    [ WHERE { <search_condition> 
            | { [ CURRENT OF 
                  { { [ GLOBAL ] cursor_name } 
                      | cursor_variable_name 
                  } 
                ]
              }
            } 
    ] 
    [ OPTION ( <query_hint> [ ,...n ] ) ]
[ ; ]

<object> ::=
{ 
    [ server_name . database_name . schema_name . 
    | database_name .[ schema_name ] . 
    | schema_name .
    ]
    table_or_view_name}

PostgreSQL

From the PostgreSQL 9.5 Manual:

[ WITH [ RECURSIVE ] with_query [, ...] ]
UPDATE [ ONLY ] table_name [ * ] [ [ AS ] alias ]
    SET { column_name = { expression | DEFAULT } |
          ( column_name [, ...] ) = ( { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...] ) |
          ( column_name [, ...] ) = ( sub-SELECT )
        } [, ...]
    [ FROM from_list ]
    [ WHERE condition | WHERE CURRENT OF cursor_name ]
    [ RETURNING * | output_expression [ [ AS ] output_name ] [, ...] ]

Oracle Database

From the Oracle Database Online Documentation 12c Release 1 (12.1):

UPDATE [ hint ]
   { dml_table_expression_clause
   | ONLY (dml_table_expression_clause)
   } [ t_alias ]
   update_set_clause
   [ where_clause ]
   [ returning_clause ]
   [error_logging_clause] ;

 DML_table_expression_clause::=

{ [ schema. ]
  { table
    [ partition_extension_clause
    | @ dblink
    ]
  | { view | materialized view } [ @ dblink ]
  }
| ( subquery [ subquery_restriction_clause ] )
| table_collection_expression
}

partition_extension_clause::=

{ PARTITION (partition)
| PARTITION FOR (partition_key_value [, partition_key_value]...)
| SUBPARTITION (subpartition)
| SUBPARTITION FOR (subpartition_key_value [, subpartition_key_value]...)
}

subquery_restriction_clause ::=

WITH { READ ONLY
     | CHECK OPTION 
     } [ CONSTRAINT constraint ]

table_collection_expression ::=

TABLE (collection_expression) [ (+) ]

update_set_clause ::=

SET
{ { (column [, column ]...) = (subquery)
  | column = { expr | (subquery) | DEFAULT }
  }
     [, { (column [, column]...) = (subquery)
        | column = { expr | (subquery) | DEFAULT }
        }
     ]...
| VALUE (t_alias) = { expr | (subquery) }
}

where_clause ::=

WHERE condition

returning_clause::=

{ RETURN | RETURNING } expr [, expr ]...
INTO data_item [, data_item ]...

error_logging_clause::=

LOG ERRORS 
  [ INTO [schema.] table ]
  [ (simple_expression) ]
  [ REJECT LIMIT { integer | UNLIMITED } ]

About the UPDATE Statement

The UPDATE statement changes the values of the specified columns in all rows that satisfy the condition. Only the columns to be modified need be included in the SET clause; columns not explicitly modified retain their previous values.