This article lists the SQL INSERT syntax, as implemented by various database management systems (DBMSs). The syntax is listed exactly as each vendor has listed it on their website. Click on the applicable link to view more detail about the syntax for a particular vendor.

The DBMSs covered are MySQL, SQL Server, PostgreSQL, and Oracle Database.

MySQL

From the MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual:

INSERT [LOW_PRIORITY | DELAYED | HIGH_PRIORITY] [IGNORE]
    [INTO] tbl_name
    [PARTITION (partition_name,...)] 
    [(col_name,...)]
    {VALUES | VALUE} ({expr | DEFAULT},...),(...),...
    [ ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE
      col_name=expr
        [, col_name=expr] ... ]

Or:

INSERT [LOW_PRIORITY | DELAYED | HIGH_PRIORITY] [IGNORE]
    [INTO] tbl_name
    [PARTITION (partition_name,...)]
    SET col_name={expr | DEFAULT}, ...
    [ ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE
      col_name=expr
        [, col_name=expr] ... ]

Or:

INSERT [LOW_PRIORITY | HIGH_PRIORITY] [IGNORE]
    [INTO] tbl_name
    [PARTITION (partition_name,...)] 
    [(col_name,...)]
    SELECT ...
    [ ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE
      col_name=expr
        [, col_name=expr] ... ]

SQL Server

From the Transact-SQL Reference:

[ WITH <common_table_expression> [ ,...n ] ]
INSERT 
{
        [ TOP ( expression ) [ PERCENT ] ] 
        [ INTO ] 
        { <object> | rowset_function_limited 
          [ WITH ( <Table_Hint_Limited> [ ...n ] ) ]
        }
    {
        [ ( column_list ) ] 
        [ <OUTPUT Clause> ]
        { VALUES ( { DEFAULT | NULL | expression } [ ,...n ] ) [ ,...n     ] 
        | derived_table 
        | execute_statement
        | <dml_table_source>
        | DEFAULT VALUES 
        }
    }
}
[;]

 

<object> ::=
{ 
    [ server_name . database_name . schema_name . 
      | database_name .[ schema_name ] . 
      | schema_name . 
    ]
  table_or_view_name
}

<dml_table_source> ::=
    SELECT <select_list>
    FROM ( <dml_statement_with_output_clause> ) 
      [AS] table_alias [ ( column_alias [ ,...n ] ) ]
    [ WHERE <search_condition> ]
        [ OPTION ( <query_hint> [ ,...n ] ) ]

<column_definition> ::=
 column_name <data_type>
    [ COLLATE collation_name ]
    [ NULL | NOT NULL ]

<data type> ::= 
[ type_schema_name . ] type_name 
    [ ( precision [ , scale ] | max ]

 

-- External tool only syntax
INSERT 
{
    [BULK]
    [ database_name . [ schema_name ] . | schema_name . ]
    [ table_name | view_name ]
    ( <column_definition> )
    [ WITH (
        [ [ , ] CHECK_CONSTRAINTS ]
        [ [ , ] FIRE_TRIGGERS ]
        [ [ , ] KEEP_NULLS ]
        [ [ , ] KILOBYTES_PER_BATCH = kilobytes_per_batch ]
        [ [ , ] ROWS_PER_BATCH = rows_per_batch ]
        [ [ , ] ORDER ( { column [ ASC | DESC ] } [ ,...n ] ) ]
        [ [ , ] TABLOCK ]
    ) ]
}
[; ]

PostgreSQL

From the PostgreSQL 9.5 Manual:

[ WITH [ RECURSIVE ] with_query [, ...] ]
INSERT INTO table_name [ AS alias ] [ ( column_name [, ...] ) ]
    { DEFAULT VALUES | VALUES ( { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...] ) [, ...] | query }
    [ ON CONFLICT [ conflict_target ] conflict_action ]
    [ RETURNING * | output_expression [ [ AS ] output_name ] [, ...] ]

where conflict_target can be one of:

    ( { index_column_name | ( index_expression ) } [ COLLATE collation ] [ opclass ] [, ...] ) [ WHERE index_predicate ]
    ON CONSTRAINT constraint_name

and conflict_action is one of:

    DO NOTHING
    DO UPDATE SET { column_name = { expression | DEFAULT } |
                    ( column_name [, ...] ) = ( { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...] ) |
                    ( column_name [, ...] ) = ( sub-SELECT )
                  } [, ...]
              [ WHERE condition ]

Oracle Database

From the Oracle Database Online Documentation 12c Release 1 (12.1):

INSERT [ hint ]
   { single_table_insert | multi_table_insert } ;

Below is a description of the clauses and their component sub-clauses.

single_table_insert ::=

insert_into_clause
{ values_clause [ returning_clause ]
| subquery 
} [ error_logging_clause ]

insert_into_clause ::=

INTO dml_table_expression_clause [ t_alias ]
[ (column [, column ]...) ]

values_clause ::=

VALUES ({ expr | DEFAULT }
          [, { expr | DEFAULT } ]...
       )

returning_clause::=

{ RETURN | RETURNING } expr [, expr ]...
INTO data_item [, data_item ]...

multi_table_insert ::=

{ ALL
  { insert_into_clause [ values_clause ] [error_logging_clause] }...
| conditional_insert_clause
} subquery

conditional_insert_clause ::=

[ ALL | FIRST ]
WHEN condition
THEN insert_into_clause
  [ values_clause ]
  [ error_logging_clause ]
  [ insert_into_clause [ values_clause ] [ error_logging_clause ] ]...
[ WHEN condition
  THEN insert_into_clause
    [ values_clause ]
    [ error_logging_clause ]
    [ insert_into_clause [ values_clause ] [ error_logging_clause ] ]...
]...
[ ELSE insert_into_clause
  [ values_clause ]
  [ error_logging_clause ]
   [ insert_into_clause [ values_clause ] [ error_logging_clause ] ]...
]

DML_table_expression_clause::=

{ [ schema. ]
  { table
    [ partition_extension_clause
    | @ dblink
    ]
  | { view | materialized view } [ @ dblink ]
  }
| ( subquery [ subquery_restriction_clause ] )
| table_collection_expression
}

partition_extension_clause::=

{ PARTITION (partition)
| PARTITION FOR (partition_key_value [, partition_key_value]...)
| SUBPARTITION (subpartition)
| SUBPARTITION FOR (subpartition_key_value [, subpartition_key_value]...)
}

subquery_restriction_clause::=

WITH { READ ONLY
     | CHECK OPTION 
     } [ CONSTRAINT constraint ]

table_collection_expression ::=

TABLE (collection_expression) [ (+) ]

error_logging_clause ::=

LOG ERRORS 
  [ INTO [schema.] table ]
  [ (simple_expression) ]
  [ REJECT LIMIT { integer | UNLIMITED } ]

About the INSERT Statement

The INSERT statement inserts new rows into a table. You can insert one or more rows specified by value expressions, or zero or more rows resulting from a query.